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This is the calendar of September with English translation.


Settimana 1: I verbi modali (potere, dovere, volere)

Settimana 2: Potere vs. sapere

Settimana 3: Imperfetto 1

Settimana 4: Imperfetto 2

Fiaba del venerdì: Sciarpetta Verde (con AUDIO)

Domenica: ricette e alimenti autunnali


Bello beautiful
Romeo, you're such a beautiful kitty!
What beautiful eyes!
What a beautiful tail!
Chestnuts are a typical autumn food. Chestnuts cooked over the fire, in a pan or in the oven are called roast chestnuts.
In autumn, there are often sellers of roast chestnuts on street corners.
Many Italian villages organize the "castagnata", a festival dedicated to chestnuts.

Image source and receipe roast chestnuts by Giallozafferano
Image source from Wikipedia la castagnata
Image source Fotokerem
Add the right verb in Imperfect

Prima Fiona viveva in un piccolo appartamento in centro e lavorava in una pizzeria. Earlier Fiona used to live in a small apartment in the centre and worked in a pizzeria.
Tutti i giorni andava al lavoro in bicicletta. Every day she went to work by bicycle.
Faceva la cameriera, quindi prendeva le ordinazioni e serviva ai tavoli. She was (lit. made) a waitress, so she took orders and served the tables.
In estate arrivavano sempre molti turisti e Fiona parlava un po' in inglese. In summer many tourists came and Fiona spoke a bit in English.
A Fiona piaceva il suo lavoro, anche se a volte era un po' stressante. Fiona liked her job, even though it was sometimes a bit stressful.

After picking up some mushrooms, Little Green Scarf came to grandma's house. She came in and went to her grandma, who was in the bedroom. Then she showed her the mushrooms, the tea and the cake.
But her grandma looked really weird...
"Granny, what a hairy face you have!"
"I know, honey, I have to go to the beautician..."
"Granny, but you have pointy ears!"
"So I can hear your complaints well, my darling."
"Granny, is that a tail???"
"For God's sake, it's clear that I'm not your grandmother!"
And the Wild Cat made a great leap and ...
ate the cake in one bite!

Imperfetto describes past events of indefinite duration.
  • Conditions, descriptions (things, places, people)
    • Fiona aveva un girasole. Fiona had a sunflower.
    • Il girasole era giallo. The sunflower was yellow.
  • Habit in the past (often associated with expressions of frequency such as tutte le sere 'every evening', di solito 'normally', sempre 'always', ogni estate 'every summer'...)
    • Fiona lo annaffiava ogni giorno. Fiona watered it every day.
L'imperfetto Imperfect
Then, one day, Romeo arrived, who was still a puppy. END.
Romeo: "What a beautiful little flower!"
Romeo: "Let's play together!"
L'imperfetto Imperfect
Fiona watered it every day. He liked to take a shower!
L'imperfetto Imperfect
Two years ago, Fiona had a nice sunflower. He was big, yellow and also fun.
Girasole: Hello, everybody! Beautiful and ugly!

Info: Depending on the context, simpatico can also mean fun.

Imperfect of essere and avere
io ero 
tu eri
lui era
noi eravamo
voi eravate
loro erano
io avevo
tu avevi
lui aveva
noi avevamo
voi avevate
loro avevano
Autumn is not only the time of the pumpkin, but also of the sweet potatoes! Sweet potatoes can be eaten raw or cooked and can be cooked in a frying pan or in the oven.
We like pureed soups very much. Have you ever tried the pureed soup of sweet potatoes, carrots and leeks?
It's perfect for a typical cold and rainy autumn day!

Info: Sweet potatoes is called in Italian patate dolci, patate dolci americane or batate (with "b")

Ricetta per la vellutata di patate dolci, carote e porro
Add the right verb

Soluzione e traduzione
1. Mentre camminava nel bosco, Sciarpetta Verde ha deciso di raccogliere qualche fungo per fare un buon risotto. While she was walking in the woods, Litte Green Scarf decided to collect some mushrooms to make a good risotto.
2. Mentre raccoglieva i funghi, Sciarpetta Verde ha incontrato il Gatto Selvatico. While she was picking the mushrooms, Little Green Scarf met the Wild Cat.
3. Mentre Sciarpetta Verde raccoglieva i funghi, il Gatto Selvatico è andato a casa della nonna. While Little Green Scarf was picking the mushrooms, the Wild Cat went to granny's house.
4. Mentre la nonna telefonava, il Gatto Selvatico ascoltava fuori dalla finestra. While granny was calling, the Wild Cat was listening outside the window.


While Little Green Scarf was picking up other mushrooms, the wild cat ran to granny's house.
Granny was in bed and she was talking on the phone.
"Yes, I still have a fever. 39. What do you say? Little Green Scarf is coming here with a cake and some tea? Great! What cake did you make?"
But granny didn't seem happy while she was listening to the answer.
"A plum cake? Mmh... Okay, thanks. See ya."
Then granny put down the phone. At that moment, the wild cat entered the house with a big leap.
L'imperfetto Imperfect 
 On going action in the past  
Es: Ieri, alle dieci, Romeo dormiva. Yesterday, at ten, Romeo was sleeping.

MENTRE + on going action No. 1 - with Imperfetto
Mentre Romeo dormiva... While Romeo was sleeping...
A) On going action No. 2 - with Imperfetto
... Fiona guardava un film. Fiona was watching a movie.
B) Action No. 2 begins and ends - with Passato Prossimo
... Fiona ha fatto una puzzetta. Fiona farted.
L'imperfetto Imperfect
While Romeo was sleeping, Fiona farted, so Romeo woke up.
Romeo: "It stinks!!!" (lit. what stink)

Info: This is a  sudden  event (passato prossimo) that happened during an  on going  action (imperfetto).
L'imperfetto Imperfect
While Romeo was sleeping, Fiona was watching a movie and eating popcorn.

Info: It's about actions that  occur at the same time .
L'imperfetto Imperfect
Last night, at ten o'clock, Romeo was sleeping comfortably on the couch.

Bildung von Imperfetto
Root + theme vowel + ending
io dorm|i|vo
tu dorm|i|vi
lui dorm|i|va
noi dorm|i|vamo
voi dorm|i|vate
loro dorm|i|vano
Autumn is pumpkin time. The pumpkin is a very healthy fruit: it has few calories, but many vitamins and minerals. It is a very versatile fruit and suitable for many recipes. Here are some ideas:
Pumpkin gnocchi, pasta with pumpkin, pumpkin balls, pumpkin cream, pumpkin muffins.

Here you will find the recipes from the popular Italian cookery blog GialloZafferano!

Potere or sapere?

Soluzioni e traduzione
1. Mia mamma sa cucinare bene. My mom can cook well.
2. Lei sa nuotare, da piccola ha frequentato un corso di nuoto. She can swim, as a child she attended a swimming course.
3. Il bambino non sa ancora contare. The child can not count yet.
4. Non posso fumare qui, è vietato. I can not smoke here, it is forbidden.
5. Non posso guidare, mi sono rotto il piede. I can not drive, I broke my foot.

While she was walking in the woods, Little Green Scarf thought: "I want to collect some mushrooms for my granny, so we can cook a nice mushroom risotto."
And so she left the path...
"Good morning, little girl," says the wild cat, "What do you do in the woods all by yourself?"
"I pick mushrooms for my sick granny. And I also bring her a good tea and the cake that Mom made", answers Little Green Scarf .
"A cake, uh? Granny is really lucky..." said the wild cat, already with its mouth watering.
"And tell me, does Granny live nearby?"
"At the end of the forest, it takes another 10 minutes!"
Potere vs. sapere 
Potere be allowed, can
  • Permesso Permission: Potere = can, be allowed. Mom, can I go out? (= am I allowed?)
  • Possibilità Possibility: Potere = can. Can you buy milk?
Sapere know, can, be able to
  • Conoscenza Knowledge: Sapere = know. I don't know.
  • Abilità (ho imparato) Ability (I've learned): Sapere = can, be able to. I can swim. (= I'm able to)
Potere vs. sapere can (have the possibility) vs. can (have the ability) 
Romeo can climb (= he knows how to do that), but now he can't climb! (= it's not possible)
Romeo: "Damn!"
Fiona: "Romeo, you're out of luck!"

Info about sfiga: la sfiga is the colloquial synonym for sfortuna (misfortune, bad luck). The opposite is la fortuna. 
Attention: lo sfigato is the loser, the uncool guy.
Potere vs. sapere can (have the possibility) vs. can (have the ability) 
Romeo cannot (doesn't have the possibility) communicate with the wasps because he cannot speak their language (doesn't have the ability).
Vespa 1: "An enemy!"
Vespa 2: "He wants to destroy our homes!"
Vespa 3: "Attack!!!"
Romeo: "I don't want to do anything to you! Help!!!"
Potere vs. sapere can (have the possibility) vs. can (have the ability) 
Romeo can (has the ability) climb trees.
He is very good!
Romeo: "I like climbing"

Arrampicarsi (refl.):
  • Presente: io mi arrampico, tu ti arrampichi, lui si arrampica, noi ci arrampichiamo,...
  • Passato Prossimo: io mi sono arrampicato/a, tu ti sei arrampicato/a, lui si è arrampicato/a, noi ci siamo arrampicati/e,...
  • Imperativo: Arrampicati! Si arrampichi! Arrampicatevi!
  • Futuro: io mi arrampicherò, tu ti arrampicherai, lui si arrampicherà, noi ci arrampicheremo,... 
  • Condizionale: io mi arrampicherei, tu ti arrampicheresti, lui si arrampicherebbe, noi ci arrampicheremmo,...
  • Imperfetto: io mi arrampicavo, tu ti arrampicavi, lui si arrampicava, noi ci arrampicavamo,...
Lasagne is a really delicious dish! Besides the classic recipe with ragu and béchamel, you can also try variations with seasonal ingredients!
Here are some autumn lasagnes:
  • Lasagne with mushroom ragu and scamorza
  • Lasagne with radicchio, chestnuts and bacon
  • Lasagne with pumpkin and gorgonzola béchamel
Here are the recipes! -->
Cody: "Let's cook!"
Choose the correct modal verb.

Soluzioni e traduzione
1. Tu mi piaci. Vuoi uscire con me? I like you. Do you want to go out with me? 
2. È finita la birra. Devo andare a comprarla! We're out of beer. I have to go and buy it.
3. Stasera non usciamo, vogliamo guardare un film. Tonight we do not go out, we want to watch a movie.
4. In questo negozio i cani possono entrare. In this shop dogs are allowed in.
5. Mi dispiace, non posso venire! Ho la febbre. I'm sorry, I can not come! I have fever.
6. Fiona, vuoi un gelato? Fiona, do you want an ice cream?
7. Qui non si può fumare. You are not allowed to smoke here.
8. Celeste non viene perché deve lavorare. Celeste does not come because he has to work.

Once upon a time there was a little girl who always wore a green scarf that her grandmother had given her. That's why everyone called her a "Little Green Scarf". She lived in a beautiful house near a large forest. At the end of the forest lived her grandmother.
One day, her mother gave her a basket and told her: "Grandmother has a cold. Go to her and bring her this cake and this good tea. But be careful! The forest is full of dangerous animals. Always follow the path!"
And so Little Green Scarf set out on her way.

I verbi modali modal verbs
Potere can, be allowed
Dovere must, have to
Volere want
I verbi modali modal verbs
Now Romeo can go out, but he doesn't want to.
Fiona: "Cats. They NEVER know what they want."
Romeo: "Aah, I just want to enjoy the view."
I verbi modali modal verbs
Maybe Romeo has to pee?
Fiona: "Romeo!!! You must scratch the door every GODDAMN time?!?
Romeo: "Oops, sorry, I didn't mean to! (lit. I didn't want to)
I verbi modali modal verbs
Romeo wants to go outside, but he can't because the door is closed.
Romeo: "I want out!"
Romeo has scratched the door.
The Risotto is a typical first course of northern Italian cuisine and suitable for autumn months.
Cody: "I really like the saffron risotto with mushrooms and gorgonzola".

Welcome, Autumn!

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